The Golden Twenties
Delicious food and drinks combined with a stimulating atmosphere of a buzzing, vibrant city can serve as an inspiration and stimulate the creative mind. Berlin’s culinary culture has served as inspiration for many artists, or has helped them to relax and get a feel for the city and its people. From as early as the 1920s, artists have enjoyed spending their leisure time in cafés, bars and restaurants, drinking, eating, reading and observing life around them.
Cafés are places in which all walks of people can come together, where the politician, actor or musician may sit at one table and a librarian, taxi driver or teacher at another. Because a cup of coffee was only about two marks, nearly everybody could afford to pay a visit to a café of his or her choosing every once in a while: “everybody is equal in the café”.1
In Berlin, next to the typical drink options of tea, coffee, water and maybe juice, most cafés would serve some light meals or breakfast. Breakfast would consist of a bread roll with butter, some cold cuts and an egg.2
Back then, a few of the Berlin cafés developed into real hotspots for artistic gatherings. The Romanisches Café, located in the West of Berlin, opposite the Gedächtniskirche, is one example. It advertised itself as the “Olympia of starving artists, the throne of Berlin Bohemians”3 and received a wide array of artists, writers, musicians and poets4. The British journalist Pem (Paul Markus) satirically wrote about the Romanisches Café and its clientele in 1926:
“The never-ending revolving door at the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church never stands still, always throwing patrons from the noisy street into the silent musicless café. Here they sit at the small, round marble tables, read countless newspapers and discuss everything from La-ot-se to modern theatre to the latest traffic ordinance, tread softly over literary gossip and, despite their worries, still feel like something special. […] The many nameless, from whom now and then a good head promises a future, sit here; but even the stars have remained faithful to the site of their pre-famous lives. And everything knows each other, even if sometimes only from looking away.”5
The Café was known for the hopeful newcomers and aspiring artists, who wanted to cross paths with established names. The café had two halls and consequently, they were dubbed the pool for “swimmers” and the pool for “non-swimmers”, referring to the spaces where established and where aspiring artists respectively would be seated.6
However, the Romanisches Café has also been called out by some writers for its decrepit decor and bad food7 and they called it the perfect place to rid oneself of any ailment as it was so “filled with tobacco smoke that not a single bacillus [could] survive [t]here.”8
British greats could also be found among the mingling crowd. Alix Strachey, a writer and translator of the works of Sigmund Freud, would spend many of her afternoons at the Romanische Café, as well as the Café Telschow or the Rundfunk Konditorei. Here she would listen to music, write letters or have deep conversations and eat cake with whipped cream and drink coffee or hot chocolate.9 Other Cafés that were known to provide the same sanctuary and community of like-minded people were the Café Josty, Schwannecke, Mutter Maenz and Insel.10
Christopher Isherwood and W.H Auden, who are two of the biggest names representing the British art scene in the 1920s and 30s in Berlin, could more often be seen at bars than cafés. A most notable example that Isherwood would often frequent was the Noster’s Restaurant zur Hütte or “Cosy-Corner” as they had named it, a so-called “boys bar”, in the working-class district Kreuzberg. He would go here to have a drink and to meet up with boys.11
What to Eat in Weimar Berlin
The following dishes are mentioned in the book ‘How to be Happy in Berlin’, a book written by John Chancellor in the 1920s as a guidebook for visitors to Weimar Berlin. However, we have taken the recipes of these dishes from the World Wide Web in the 21st century. The recipes are taken from different English websites and their sources are written below them. Hope you enjoy making them!
2-2,5 kg knuckle of veal in whole
1 tbs rapeseed oil
2 pc onion
1 bund vegetable broth
2 tbs tomato puree
500 ml veal stock
1 bottle dry red wine
2 pc cloves of garlic
1/4 bunch thyme fresh
2 pc bay leaves
1-2 tbs cornflour
60 ml water
60 g cold butter
Wash and dry the knuckle of veal, season with salt, pepper and some paprika.
Brown the knuckle of veal in a roaster with the oil from all sides and remove from the roaster.
Brown small cut vegetables consisting of carrots, onion, celery and parsley root in the roaster, then add leek, tomato with tomato paste, roast light brown, deglaze with veal stock and red wine and bring to the boil.
Place the garlic, thyme, bay leaves and knuckle of veal in the roaster and braise with the lid in the oven at 170°C for approx. 2.5 hours. Turn the veal shank after 1.5 hours of cooking.
In the meantime, prepare the side dishes for the veal shank. Towards the end of the cooking time, check the cooking degree of the veal knuckle by piercing it with a meat fork: If the veal shank meat can be pierced without any noticeable resistance and no red meat juice escapes, the veal shank is cooked.
Remove the knuckle of veal from the roaster and keep warm. Pass the sauce through a fine hair sieve and bring to the boil. Mix the starch in cold water and pour into the boiling veal sauce. Continue cooking the sauce, so that the sauce binds. Before serving, season the sauce with salt and pepper and mix with cold butter.
250 g fresh beef, fillet or other tender cut
1 egg yolk
1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1 tablespoon chopped capers
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
1 tablespoon of ketchup
A few drops of Tabasco sauce
Salt and pepper to taste
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 teaspoon of chopped parsley
Cut the meat with a knife (very finely diced) or chop in the meat grinder or food processor.
In a bowl, mix the egg yolk, Dijon mustard, onion, capers, Worcestershire sauce, ketchup, Tabasco, salt and pepper. Add the olive oil, whisk. Add the meat to the sauce and parsley. Adjust the seasoning. Dress the mix in a dome shape in the center of the plate and serve … with French fries!
Some chefs like to serve the egg yolk on top, to mix yourself. It adds a little fun to the recipe.
We were not able to find the same dish. However, based on the description given in the book and its similarity to the word Hackpeter, which is a dish similar to Mett, we have provided the recipe for Mett.
Minced pork: 1 kg
Salt and white pepper to taste
Caraway or marjoram (crushed): 2 grams (optional)
Bread rolls: as per requirement
Onion: 1 large
Pickles for garnish
Cut the rolls into halves. Generously spread minced pork on the top slice using a fork and sprinkle with salt and pepper to taste.
Chop or slice the onions and place on top of the Mett.
Slice the pickles and place on top. Mettbrötchen are now ready to be served. The usual accompaniments are tea or coffee if they are served during breakfast or otherwise just about anything else will do.
1 kg fresh herring
250 ml 5% white vinegar
12 teaspoons salt
250 ml water
6 teaspoons sugar
1 bay leaf
2 allspice seeds
4 tablespoons vinegar
onion sliced into rings
Rinse the fresh herring, wash, pat dry and place in brine. Prepare the brine using 1/4 litre of 5% white vinegar and 9 teaspoons of salt. Make sure the herring is well covered in brine and place in the fridge for 2–3 days. Once the herring is infused, remove the bones and peel off the skin.
Boil 1/4 litre of water, 3 teaspoons of salt, 6 teaspoons of sugar, 1 bay leaf, 2 allspice seeds and 2 teaspoons of mustard seeds. Add 4 tablespoons of vinegar to taste.
Pour the cold marinade over the fillets. To finish, put the onion rings on top. Immerse everything fully in the marinade, weighing it down slightly if necessary, and leave to infuse for 2–3 days. Season 2–3 times during this period. Serve the Bismarck herring with herby potatoes cooked with bacon, and a beetroot salad.
4 fresh herrings ready to be cooked
salt and pepper
1 tablespoon sugar
butter or oil for frying
1 cup red wine vinegar
1 cup vegetable broth
2 bay leaves
10 black peppercorns
1 tablespoon mustard seeds
8 ounce jar mixed pickles drained
8 ounce jar cocktail onions
4 hot chilies
Salt and pepper the herrings and coat them with flour.Heat the butter/oil in a frying pan and fry the herrings till golden brown. Let them drain on paper towels.
Combine vinegar, vegetable broth, spices and sugar in a pot and boil. Let it cool off. Put the herrings in a bowl, add the well-drained and sliced mixed pickles, cocktail onions and chilies and cover with the broth.
Store covered in a refrigerator for several days. Serve with fried potatoes.
2 lbs yellow onions (about 6-8 medium onions)
50 g clarified butter (regular butter will work as well)
2 lbs lean beef (veal or trimmed chuck is best)
3 cloves garlic
1 tsp caraway seeds
2 tsp dried marjoram
2 Tbsp sweet paprika
2 Tbsp tomato paste
3 Tbsp red wine vinegar
1 3/4 cup beef broth
2 bay leaves
1 tsp kosher salt (plus more to taste)
1/4 tsp ground black pepper (plus more to taste)
Preheat the oven to 350F if cooking in the oven as opposed to on the stove top.
Peel and chop the onions very finely. Set aside.
Heat the butter in a roasting pan over medium heat. Add the onions and cook, stirring frequently, until golden brown, about 30 minutes.
In the meantime, trim the beef of any fat and sinew, then cut the beef into about 1″ – 1 1/2″ pieces. Set aside.
Peel the garlic, chop, add caraway seeds and mince together with a knife.
Once the onions are ready, add the beef broth, red wine vinegar, paprika and the meat together with the bay leaves, garlic, caraway seeds, marjoram, and tomato paste. Mix and bring to gentle simmer. Turn the heat down to low, cover and let simmer on the stove top (or in the oven at 350F) until the onions have mostly disintegrated and the beef is tender, about 90 minutes to 2 hours. For a thicker consistency, cook uncovered or partially covered after 1 hour while frequently checking on the progress. Once the goulash is thick enough for your taste, cover and continue cooking until done.
Season the goulash with salt and pepper, remove the bay leaves and serve while hot.
3 medium (about 6 ounces each) leeks
1 (4 1/2-pound) boneless pork shoulder, preferably with a nice, even fat cap (or a 5 1/2-pound bone-in pork shoulder)
1 tablespoon cumin seeds
2 teaspoons caraway seeds
1 tablespoon brown mustard seeds
2 teaspoons hot paprika
1 tablespoon plus 2 teaspoons kosher salt, divided
2 ½ teaspoons black pepper, divided
1 pound baby Yukon Gold potatoes
1 large (about 12 ounces) yellow onion, cut into 1-inch wedges
3 large (about 6 ounces each) carrots, cut into 1-inch pieces (about 3 cups)
3 large (about 5 ounces each) parsnips, cut into 1-inch pieces (about 3 cups)
2 (12-ounce) cans dark German beer (such as Märzen, dunkel, or bock)
2 tablespoons unsalted butter
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
Remove and discard dark green tops from leeks (or save for stock). Rinse leeks thoroughly under cold water to remove all sand; pat dry. Slice leeks into 1/2-inch rounds (you’ll have about 2 cups). Set aside.
If the butcher did not remove the bone: Using a boning knife, carefully remove shoulder blade from pork shoulder (be careful not to damage fat cap); discard bone (or save for stock). Trim shoulder until uniformly shaped and between 4 1/2 to 5 pounds in total weight.
Using a sharp paring knife, score the fat cap of the pork in a crosshatch pattern, slicing no more than 1/4-inch deep into fat. Set aside, uncovered, at room temperature on a roasting pan fitted with a rack.
Cook cumin seeds and caraway seeds in a small skillet over medium, stirring often, until toasted and fragrant, 4 to 5 minutes. Transfer to a small bowl; let stand until completely cooled, about 5 minutes.
Place cooled cumin mixture and mustard seeds in a spice grinder; grind into a coarse powder, about 10 seconds. Transfer back to the small bowl and add the paprika, 1 tablespoon of the salt, and 1 1/2 teaspoons of the pepper; stir until combined. Rub mixture evenly over pork shoulder to completely coat and position on the rack in the roasting pan, fat cap up. Let stand at room temperature, uncovered, for 1 hour. Meanwhile, preheat oven to 350°F.
Bake pork, uncovered, until deep golden brown and a thermometer inserted into thickest portion of pork registers 100°F, about 1 hour. Carefully remove roasting pan from oven and move rack with pork to a cutting board (it will go back into the oven shortly). Measure 2 tablespoons rendered pork fat from roasting pan into a large bowl; add potatoes, onion, carrots, parsnips, leeks, 1 teaspoon of the salt, and 1/2 teaspoon of the pepper, and toss to coat. Arrange vegetable mixture in roasting pan around pork; pour beer over vegetables. Position rack with pork over the vegetables, and return roasting pan to oven; bake, uncovered, at 350°F, basting pork with beer mixture in roasting pan every 30 minutes, until a thermometer inserted into thickest portion of pork registers 165°F and vegetables are tender and golden, 1 hour, 30 minutes to 1 hour, 45 minutes more.
Carefully remove roasting pan from oven; transfer pork to a platter. Using a slotted spoon, transfer vegetables to platter around pork; reserve beer mixture in roasting pan. Loosely cover pork with aluminum foil; let rest at room temperature 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, skim and discard fat from pan juices in roasting pan. Pour pan juices through a fine-mesh strainer into a medium bowl. Melt butter in a medium saucepan over medium. Whisk in flour; cook, whisking constantly, until roux is golden and fragrant, about 3 minutes. Whisk pan juices into roux, and whisk together until well combined. Bring to a boil over medium, whisking constantly. Reduce heat to medium-low; simmer, whisking occasionally, until thickened, about 10 minutes. Stir in remaining 1 teaspoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Serve pork and vegetables with gravy.
1 large 8 lbs goose
1 teaspoon or adjust to taste salt
1 teaspoon pepper
1 teaspoon or as desired marjoram
1 large onion, cut in rings
4 medium apples, quartered
11/2 cups apple puree
1 medium bay leaf
2 medium cloves
4 cups water, hot
Rub the inside of the goose with the salt, pepper and marjoram.Stuff the goose with the onions and apples. Place it, breast downwards, on a rack in a baking pan. Add the hot water, cloves and bay leaf. Turn the goose after a couple of hours and continue roasting for about one hour longer. Remove the goose from the pan. On top of the stove, bring the gravy to a boil and skim off the excess fat. Add the puree and stir well. Serve the sauce separately.
1 medium head green cabbage (about 3 pounds)
1 1/2 tablespoons kosher salt
1 tablespoon caraway seeds (optional, for flavor)
Clean everything. When fermenting anything, it’s best to give the good, beneficial bacteria every chance of succeeding by starting off with as clean an environment as possible. Make sure your mason jar and jelly jar are washed and rinsed of all soap residue. You’ll be using your hands to massage the salt into the cabbage, so give those a good wash, too.
Slice the cabbage. Discard the wilted, limp outer leaves of the cabbage. Cut the cabbage into quarters and trim out the core. Slice each quarter down its length, making 8 wedges. Slice each wedge crosswise into very thin ribbons.
Combine the cabbage and salt. Transfer the cabbage to a big bowl and sprinkle the salt over top. Begin working the salt into the cabbage by massaging and squeezing the cabbage with your hands. At first it might not seem like enough salt, but gradually the cabbage will become watery and limp — more like coleslaw than raw cabbage. This will take 5 to 10 minutes. If you’d like to flavor your sauerkraut with caraway seeds, mix them in now.
Pack the cabbage into the jar. Grab handfuls of the cabbage and pack them into the canning jar. If you have a canning funnel, this will make the job easier. Every so often, tamp down the cabbage in the jar with your fist. Pour any liquid released by the cabbage while you were massaging it into the jar. Optional: Place one of the larger outer leaves of the cabbage over the surface of the sliced cabbage. This will help keep the cabbage submerged in its liquid.
Weigh the cabbage down. Once all the cabbage is packed into the mason jar, slip the smaller jelly jar into the mouth of the jar and weigh it down with clean stones or marbles. This will help keep the cabbage weighed down, and eventually, submerged beneath its liquid.
Cover the jar. Cover the mouth of the mason jar with a cloth and secure it with a rubber band or twine. This allows air to flow in and out of the jar, but prevents dust or insects from getting into the jar.
Press the cabbage every few hours. Over the next 24 hours, press down on the cabbage every so often with the jelly jar. As the cabbage releases its liquid, it will become more limp and compact and the liquid will rise over the top of the cabbage.
Add extra liquid, if needed. If after 24 hours, the liquid has not risen above the cabbage, dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water and add enough to submerge the cabbage.
Ferment the cabbage for 3 to 10 days. As it’s fermenting, keep the sauerkraut away from direct sunlight and at a cool room temperature — ideally 65°F to 75°F. Check it daily and press it down if the cabbage is floating above the liquid.
Because this is a small batch of sauerkraut, it will ferment more quickly than larger batches. Start tasting it after 3 days — when the sauerkraut tastes good to you, remove the weight, screw on the cap, and refrigerate. You can also allow the sauerkraut to continue fermenting for 10 days or even longer. There’s no hard-and-fast rule for when the sauerkraut is “done” — go by how it tastes.
While it’s fermenting, you may see bubbles coming through the cabbage, foam on the top, or white scum. These are all signs of a healthy, happy fermentation process. The scum can be skimmed off the top either during fermentation or before refrigerating. If you see any mold, skim it off immediately and make sure your cabbage is fully submerged; don’t eat moldy parts close to the surface, but the rest of the sauerkraut is fine.
Store sauerkraut for several months. This sauerkraut is a fermented product so it will keep for at least two months and often longer if kept refrigerated. As long as it still tastes and smells good to eat, it will be. If you like, you can transfer the sauerkraut to a smaller container for longer storage.
Berlin in the 70s
In the 1970s, the “living room of the Berlin bohème” had found its residence in the Paris Bar, where “every real artist [was] at home”.12 The restaurant, serving French cuisine, was a meeting point of creative minds and has seen many famous faces pass through its doors. Its reputation came not only from the amalgamation of local as well as international celebrities and the quality of the food, but also its richly decorated interior with paintings by famous artists such as Martin Kippenberger and its appeal as a party location.13 Back then, it was the only place in Berlin that could be defined as an “art bar”.14 Mick Jagger15, David Bowie and Damien Hirst, are only some of the the many British artists that have spent their evenings in the then “most famous eatery in Berlin” where, according to David Bowie, one could get the best steak with chips in Berlin.16
Today, Paris Bar is no longer THE hotspot for artists as it was during the second half of the 20th century. Cafés, Restaurants and Bars, such as the Grill Royal, das Schwarze Café and das Gift have superseded it in that role. While the Grill Royal has hosted some of the most famous names of this generation of celebrities, das Schwarze Café17 and das Gift create their artistic scenes more subtly. Das Gift was founded by the Scottish musician Barry Burns and his wife Rachel, as well as musician Phil Collins, and it attracts tourists, Berliners, as well as other British expats and artists who can enjoy Scottish drinks while viewing art in the adjacent gallery space.18
Other British artists that you may encounter in the streets of Berlin today, are the actor Sam Riley and the singer Jay Khan. The latter also operated his own restaurant in Wilmersdorf until recently, called Padre e Figlio19. Turner Prize winners Suzan Philipsz and Douglas Gordon and former Berliner Philharmonic director Sir Simon Rattle have also settled in Berlin.20
For British artists, Berlin is a multilingual, multicultural metropolis, which is however still affordable and supportive of the arts. The British artists in Berlin appreciate the larger, less crowded space that the city provides and which motivates a more relaxed, stress-free and creative development of their craft.21
“Berlin is like that friend you have that you can’t tell if you fancy them or just want to be them. You can drink and eat for so much less and party till so late and there’s so much more variety and far less red tape.”22 This space that is available to the people living here in a physical sense also seems to reflect itself in the mental space provided for their artistic development. The creative development of ideas can only thrive if the proper mindset is found, and many of the British artists in Berlin have found this mindset by living in and enjoying the perks of Berlin. ”My experience of Berlin is that for the most part, people let each other live how they like.”23 This notion that is representative of the general Berlin lifestyle also reflects itself in Berlin’s culinary scene, which through its variety of options provides a suitable venue for everyone and every occasion and where like-minded people can come together and form their own little community.
As a final touch and something to look forward to when it is safe again to enjoy a meal in a restaurant, here are some recommendations for places in Berlin that can provide you with a British meal experience for a change. When one needs to satisfy cravings early in the day, Simply in Prenzlauer Berg, Schraders in Wedding and Das Gift in Neukölln offer a full English breakfast including beans, eggs, and toast — and Das Gift even offers haggis. A stroll through the English Garden in Tiergarten, Mitte, or a walk through the Brandenburg gate can lead you to two locations: the English Teahouse or the Hotel Adlon, where you can enjoy a full English tea with scones. Towards the end of the day, try either Salt’n Bone or the Fischladen in Prenzlauer Berg, where classic British Fish & Chips are served.
Figure 1. Konditorei Schilling / Courtesy of Prof. Dr. Gesa Stedman
Figure 2. Konditorei Schilling / Courtesy of Prof. Dr. Gesa Stedman
Figure 3. Kalbshaxe © Thomas Sixt
Figure 4. Beef à la Tartar © Alice’s Kitchen
Figure 5. Hochepater © German Culture
Figure 6. Bismarckhering © GeoTrinity
Figure 7. Brathering © German Culture
Figure 8. Goulash © Craving Tasty
Figure 9. Public domain
Figure 10. Gänsebraten © German Culture
Figure 11. Public domain
Figure 12. Public domain
Figure 13. Public domain
1 Chancellor, John. How to be Happy in Berlin. London: Arrowsmith. 1929, 67.
3 Smith, Camilla. “Was nicht im “Baedeker” steht: Exploring art, mass culture and anti-tourism in Weimar Germany.” New German Critique 45.1 (2018): 225.
4 Chancellor, John.
5 Markus, Paul. “Die Bleibe.” Der Junggeselle 10.2 (1926): 5.
6 Conrad, Andreas. “Im “Industriegebiet der Intelligenz”. Tagesspiegel. 15 November 2020.
7 see Ivry, Benjamin. “Café Culture in Weimar Berlin.” The Forward. 03 August 2010.; see Conrad, Andreas.
8 Ivry, Benjamin.
9 Stedman, Gesa. “‘An Habitué of the Romanisches Café’: Alix Strachery’s 1920s Berlin.” Forum for Modern Language Studies. 53.3 (2017): 338-348.
10 Gerk, Andrea.
11 Tamagne, Florence. A History of Homosexuality in Europe, Berlin, London, Paris 1919-1939. New York: Algora Publishing. 2004.
12 Sayej, Nadja. “Celebrating 40 years of paris bar; berlin’s original artists hangout.” i-D 27 January 2017.
13 Cooper, Sabrina. “A Historical Look at the Paris Bar Berlin.” CR. 06. December 2018.
14 Sayej, Nadja.
16 “Schwarze Café: Berliner Kulturort und Künstlertreff: Das Schwarze Café” .
17 “Das Gift – Berlin.” MyGuide.
18 Higgins, Charlotte. “British artists flock to set up home in liberating Berlin” The Guardian. 16 March 2011.
19 Cordes, Niklas. “Sänger Jay Khan gibt restaurant in Wilmersdorf auf.” Berliner Morgenpost 11 January 2019.
20 Higgins, Charlotte.
21 Higgins, Charlotte.
22 i-D staff.
Chancellor, John. How to be Happy in Berlin. London: Arrowsmith. 1929.
Conrad, Andreas. “Im “Industriegebiet der Intelligenz”. Tagesspiegel. 15. November 2020.
Cooper, Sabrina. “A Historical Look at the Paris Bar Berlin.” CR. 06. December 2018.
Cordes, Niklas. “Sänger Jay Khan gibt restaurant in Wilmersdorf auf.” Berliner Morgenpost 11. January 2019.
“Das Gift – Berlin.” MyGuide.
Doyle, Rachel B. “Looking for Isherwood’s Berlin”. The New York Times. 12. April 2013.
Gerk, Andrea. “Wie man von einem Dampfkochtopf den Deckel nimmt.” Deutschlandfunk Kultur. 27. January 2020.
Higgins, Charlotte. “British artists flock to set up home in liberating Berlin” The Guardian. 16. March 2011.
i-D Staff. “Why young Londoners are moving to Berlin.” i-D. 15. June 2015.
Ivry, Benjamin. “Café Culture in Weimar Berlin.” The Forward. 03. August 2010.
Markus, Paul. “Die Bleibe.” Der Junggeselle 10.2 (1926): 4–6.
Sayej, Nadja. “Celebrating 40 years of Paris bar; berlin’s original artists hangout.” i-D. 27 January 2017.
“Schwarze Café: Berliner Kulturort und Künstlertreff: Das Schwarze Café” Berlin.de.
Smith, Camilla. “Was nicht im “Baedeker” steht: Exploring art, mass culture and anti-tourism in Weimar Germany.” New German Critique 45.1 (2018): 207-245.
Stedman, Gesa. “‘An Habitué of the Romanisches Café’: Alix Strachery’s 1920s Berlin.” Forum for Modern Language Studies. 53.3 (2017): 338-348.
Tamagne, Florence. A History of Homosexuality in Europe, Berlin, London, Paris 1919-1939. New York: Algora Publishing. 2004.